CHAPTER III.

SOME FAMOUS STRUCTURES OF QUINCY GRANITE.-PIONEERS IN THE
WORK AND THE EXTENT OF THEIR BUSINESS.-BUILDING
MINOT'S LEDGE LIGHTHOUSE.

T HE United States Branch Bank, on State street, Boston, which was designed and built by him was completed before the work on the monument was commenced, July 5, 1824 columns in the portico of this building were cut from a huge boulder of granite in the town of Westford, Massachusetts, known as the Chelmsford granite. They were 24 feet in height, including the cap, and four feet in diameter at the base, being six-diameter columns. The plan of the monument at Concord in commemora tion of the fight at the "old North bridge" was furnished at the request of Edward Everett in 1836. The Norfolk County Court House at Dedham was designed by Mr. Willard and erected in 1826. It was constructed of granite found in the immediate vicin ity. It was universally regarded as one of the finest and best speci mens of architecture in the country. The Franklin Monument in the old Granary Burying Ground was erected in 1827. It is of pyramidal form, composed of several blocks taken from the Bunker Hill quarry. The design was furnished by Mr. Willard, as was the Harvard Monument in the old Burying Ground in Charlestown and erected in 1828. The block was taken from the Bunker Hill ledge and cost about one-quarter of a cent per cubic foot. He furnished at different times many designs for churches, hospitals, dwelling houses, stores, etc., and plans for remodelling churches and other edifices. In the fall of 1829 he was employed in reconnoitering the route of the Fitchburg Railroad. In Decem ber of the same year he drew outlines of several different routes, extending them as far as Brattleboro, Vermont. In 1831 he exam ined the route for a railroad from Boston to Taunton and Somerset. The same year he fulfilled a contract with Martin Brimmer of Boston and supplied the granite for the fence and gateway of the Granary Burying Ground, one block of which, that nearest the Tremont Building, is the largest in Boston, being about 35 feet long.

But had it not been for the miscalculation on the part of the quarrymen in cutting the stone for one of the pillars of the New York Exchange too large, the immense monolith would not now be resting in front of the famous old cemetery. When the stone was freed it was found to weigh over 110 tons, consequently a slab of more than 40 tons was cut from it and sent to Boston. Garrett Barry, one of the most skilful stone cutters of his time finished the block Mr. Barry came to this country from Cork, Ireland, and for years was employed by Solomon Willard. He is said to have worked on the Ether Monument.

The work on the gateway of the Granary Burying Ground (the winged globe and inverted torches), and on the corner posts (winged glass), was cut at Quincy by Mr. Barry, and it is still among the best granite sculpture in the city. The old Court House that stood on Court street was erected in 1836 by Solomon Willard. It was a gloomy Quincy granite structure, presenting a Doric front with ponderous columns of fluted granite, each 27 feet in height and four and a half feet in diameter, and weighs about 30 tons.

A similar portico in the rear towards City Hall was removed about 35 years ago in order to add to the length of the building. The form of the building was that of a parallelogram extending in length 176x54 feet. The height was 57 feet to the cornice, con- sisting of a basement and three stories. The structure was the least adapted to the comfort and convenience of courts, council and witnesses of any court house in the Commonwealth. It cost $180,000.

These columns were among the heaviest, after those of the Branch Bank and Quincy Market, brought into the city. A team of 65 yoke of oxen and 12 horses was required to draw them, and the other monster monoliths from the railway in Quincy to Boston, a distance of over ten miles. While the mighty stones were being loaded by jack screws in the wagon the whole country for miles around had been scoured for oxen to haul it. Oxen were the more accessible beasts of burden in that section, as in all other rural districts, but twenty-six yoke could not be gotten together in a moment.

At a specified hour drivers each with a yoke of strong oxen, and men each driving two horses, gathered around the wagon. There were two chains fastened to the cart, and to each of these two oxen were attached, making four abreast. The horses were hitched tandem fashion at the head of the possession, and each driver had his own yoke of oxen to look after.

Imagine such a team! What "geeing" and "hawing" there must have been to keep the lazy animals down to business and the whole in motion. When descending Milton hill and other steep inclines, the middle wheels were locked with chains, and more than one-half the number of oxen had to be hitched to the rear of the wagon to hold it back. The long calvalcade attracted much attention along the route, and when it reached the city it had undis puted possession of the streets through which it passed. One can imagine that those sixty-five yoke of oxen hitched together in one long-drawn-out line of swaying horns and switching tails must have presented an impassable barrier to any who desired to cross the street. The cost of transporting each column was $100.

When the Court House was demolished in 1912 it was desired to save the portico and have it erected on an island in Boston Harbor. But it proved a more difficult task than originally planned. The gigantic columns had to be moved by the way of Court street, under which runs the East Boston tunnel, and across Scollay square on Washington street, thus being hemmed in by the tunnel, the Tremont street subway and the Washington street tube. Engi neers were afraid the 30-ton pillars would cause considerable dam age to those underground structures, consequently the pillars were split in three pieces.

In 1836, a contract was made by Mr. Willard with the New York Merchants' Exchange Company to furnish the stone for their new building, and the contract continued for over five years. Isaiah Rogers was the architect, and the company by Mr. Willard's sug gestion, purchased the right to take the stone required from the Wigwam quarry from A. E. Belknap for five years. We presume that this was Mr. Rogers' transaction, as Mr. Willard enters the payment of the tax upon the quarry in this wise. "Paid Mr. Rogers' tax for ledge $16, made out to A. E. Belknap." John H. Stevens, president of the Exchange Company, visited the quarry in August, 1838, and expressed himself as follows respecting the work in progress. "I was pleased exceedingly with things there. I do not believe granite has been worked so exten sively and beautifully in such masses since the times of the Egyptians. The bases, consoles, flutings and caps are equally admirable."

Up to January, 1840, Mr. Willard had employed at the quarry from forty to ninety men, engaged exclusively in the work for this building, and he had received from the company and paid them $255,794.91, while his salary was but $5.00 per day. A very large amount of stone was required, including 18 fluted columns of over 30 tons each, and more than 50 other blocks of from 12 to 16 tons measurement. The finished columns were 32 feet 8 inches in height. After the first column had been successfully obtained Mr. Willard wrote. "I do not apprehend much difficulty in getting the whole out, although our neighbors in the stone business appear to be much concerned about it. I presume we can get them if anybody can, and at less than half the cost to them."

In July, 1840, he wrote. "We are now drilling a line of holes 84 feet long, and have a fair chance of getting two columns at the next split." On August 5th he wrote "Our long split is wedged off about an inch, and I think will make what was intended. Our quarrymen have had to proceed with great caution on account of the great length." Another block was got out which it was expected would make four columns, but it was not successful. He wrote on July 8, 1841, during which time much of the granite for the Boston Exchange and Custom House had been got out and fo warded. "We expect to get through shortly, and to have the great est hoorah and throwing up of caps that ever was in Quincy! We have saved three cartridges for the Yankee to be fired off when the last column is loaded."

Two years after most of the other work was done was required to finish up these columns. The cost of them is stated in an estimate of work remaining to be done in June, 1839, at $1,500 each; but a later statement made in 1841, two of them upon which extra work was ordered are put down at $4,000. "The prime cost of getting out one of these shafts is as much as the prime cost of a Doric column with its capital, for which $5,200 is paid at the Custom House." The estimated work upon each was equal to four men for forty-five days. There was great risk in getting them out, and no less than five blocks which were split off failed to answer for a column, and one was rejected after it was rounded.

The work was completed in December, 1841, having been in progress five years and four months. During this time the com- pany became greatly embarrassed. When the affairs were finally settled a considerable amount was found to be due. Mr. Willard and his men, but all were finally paid, many receiving for their claims the new 5 per cent bonds issued by the company. Although Mr. Willard remained unpaid to the last, he advanced out of his own pocket hundreds of dollars to the workmen to relieve them from pressing necessities.

In 1841, he furnished the granite for the Merchants' Exchange in Boston. The tall, plain and fluted pilasters that were in front of this building were much the largest in Boston and were raised into position by means of screws. The corner pilasters were 41 feet 8 inches in height, 6 feet wide and weighed about 55 tons. The emblem of commerce and navigation that formed the centrepiece in the front elevation, an engaged globe, showing parallels, meri dians, and eclyptic, surmounted by the American Eagle, with cornu copias of productions, and coin resting upon bales below and pro jecting from behind the globe at the sides, a ship's mast, trident, anchor and cadricens, although wrought by Garrett Barry, a stone cutter, nearly three-quarters of a century ago, is considered to be well done. This piece was removed when the old Exchange was demolished and embedded in the walls of the Chamber of Com merce.

Solomon Willard was employed in 1828 by the directors of Internal Improvements for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to ascertain the cost, quality and quantity of granite for building the western railway between Boston and Providence. The stone was intended to be used for rails and bridges. The rails were to be long blocks of granite, about one foot square, resting upon a founda tion wall extending to the depth of two and one-half feet below the surface of the ground and two feet wide at the bottom. The upper surface of the railstone was cut smooth to receive the iron rail, with a straight edge a little bevelled to the depth of one and one half inches, on the inside, for the flange upon the wheel. They were closely fitted at the ends, and made of the same thickness for several inches from the joint. The iron plate rail was two inches wide, and three-eighths of an inch thick, with a perfectly flat sur face. This was fastened upon the railstone by small bolts of tough iron, three inches long and three-eighths of an inch in diameter. Holes of these dimensions were drilled in the railstone, and the corresponding holes in the plate rail were countersunk to enable the bolts to hold when cut even with the surface of the rail. These fastenings were about one foot apart along the rail. The road was gravelled between the rails, and about two feet on the outside, to the depth of six inches, which brought the surface of the gravel to within four inches of the top of the railstone. At the crossing of roads the gravel was brought to a level with the rails, and the back part of the railstone was raised a little above the iron rail, which was protected on the inside by a kind of edgestone, resting against the railstone and rising to the same height with it.

Mr. Willard examined a number of quarries along the line of the proposed road at one or two miles distance. Travelling west ward he found considerable quantities of granite in Needham and Natick, but none which seemed to authorize much expectation of success until he reached the old Baptist Meeting House in Fram ingham, where they found an extensive ledge of good granite to within twenty rods of the line. From that point westward they located abundant quarries of granite suitable for railstone at a distance of one to five miles upon the line and from twenty rods to two and one-half miles from the line until he reached Palmer From that place he could not find suitable material until he arrived at Mount Tekoa, where a deposit of gneiss was found. From there on he found various ledges of granite on an average of about one mile of each other along the line.

In his report he says "At the Bunker Hill ledge large quanti ties of granite have been split in large blocks of dimension stone, and delivered in the hammerer's shed, at 300 or 400 feet distance at 712-100 cents per cubic foot, for the last two years. The trans portation of these stones was considered nearly half the labor. It is understood that many workmen are now employed at Quincy and Gloucester in quarrying edgestone and cellar stone, by contract, and by the day at two and one-half cents per cubic foot, they finding their own tools. These stones are generally considered as inexpen sive to quarry, as would be the railstone, particularly as gouts and inequalities of one or two inches in the railstone would do no harm, and also at the various lengths from six to ten or twelve feet would lessen the labor. From all these circumstances I think five cents per foot would be a very safe estimate, for all risks of the quality of the ledges, which is the only exigency to be provided for in this item of expense. In estimating the cost of dressing and preparing the railstone for the work in accordance with the sample I have compared it with the dressing of edgestone for sidewalks and other work of similar kind, and on this comparison I think forty feet would be but a reasonable day's work, and that four cents per foot in length would abundantly pay for the labor and tools. From inquiry I find that the price of a team of four oxen, cart and driver is $2 50 per day, and that 10_ cents per ton for carting stone would cover the day's work. From these calculations the estimate would stand as follows:

For quarrying the railstone .....5 cents per foot
Dressing and preparing them for work.....4 cents per foot
Hauling to line of road .....4 cents per foot
Opening quarries and making roads.....1 cent per foot"

Mr. Willard lived in Quincy until his death, which occurred February 27, 1861, just as he was seating himself at the breakfast table. He was buried in Hall Cemetery near an immense pillar quarried for the New York Exchange, but which through some plan was rejected Mr. Willard, with one or two assistants, erected this shaft several years before his death.

The Neponset river was used for navigation as early as 1820. Four years later a lumber wharf was built near the head of tide water, and in 1826 the Granite Railway Company ran a railroad from Quincy to the tide water at Gulliver's creek, bringing the granite from the quarries to the flat-bottomed barges at the creek in large cars. In 1827, William Hobart started his grain business near the head of tide water, and employed two schooners between New York and Dorchester, the cargo to Dorchester being grain, and to New York, granite.

In 1815 there was a great gale which destroyed the arch of the bridge over Neponset river. This arch was erected at the dividing line of the town in 1798, to commemorate the ratification of Jay's Treaty. The inscription on it, in letters of gold, read. "We unite in the defence of our country and its laws-1798. This bridge had been built by the towns of Dorchester and Milton in 1765, the former town building the two northern sluices, covering them with stone, and the latter town the southern sluices."

The rapid increase of the stone business had so multiplied and increased the inhabitants of West Quincy and East Milton that they demanded a more convenient and direct communication with Boston than the old bridge, and to relieve this urgent necessity the General Court granted a charter for a new bridge over Neponset river, which was constructed in 1836, and called the Granite bridge, although built of wood.

The navigation of the river attained its maximum height in 1833, when seventy-four vessels, aggregating six thousand tons, unloaded their cargoes at Neponset village, at the head of naviga tion, besides many vessels which sailed up the river empty to be loaded with granite to be transported elsewhere. The navigation was practically ruined when the Granite bridge was erected. There was a slate quarry at North Quincy. Samuel Rawson cut all the slate tombstones for the surrounding country, and as one old resident said "My father owned a slate quarry there, and I remember well when a boy, seventy years ago (1880) frequently stopping on the way home from school to watch what was to me at that time a wonder, the chisel, when he was working out the weeping willows, death heads and wings, etc."

The following firms have been engaged in the granite business in Quincy.

Newcomb & Richards, composed of Joseph Richards and Bryant Newcomb, 1803, William Packard, of the Parkard quarry, later worked by C. H. Hardwick & Co; Granite Railway Company, Gridley Bryant, agent, succeeded by S. R. Johnson, George Penniman, J. B. Whicher and O. E. Sheldon, 1825; Bunker Hill Association, Solomon Willard, agent, 1827, Richards & New comb, composed of Joseph Richards and Jonathan Newcomb, South Common, 1827, Samuel Martin, 1827, Newcomb Brothers, com posed of James Bryant, Jonathan and Samuel Newcomb, South Common, 1829; Thomas Hollis, 1828, Wright & Barker, composed of Henry Barker and Abel Wright, 1834 to 1842, Moses Day & Co. (Packard quarry), 1830, A. J. Mosier & Co, 1836; O. T. Rogers & Co, composed of O. T. Rogers, Jesse Bunton, Samuel Babcock and Noah Cummings, 1835, Barker, Wright & Co, 1842 to 1862, Richards, Munn & Co, composed of Joseph Richards, Luther Munn, Lysander Richards and John S. Lyons, 1829; Frederick & Field, composed of E. C. Sargent and Thomas Hollis, Jr., 1834; Henry Barker & Sons, 1866, Beal & Frederick, composed of Horace Beals and Eleazer Frederick, 1836, New York Exchange Com- pany, Solomon Willard, agent, 1838, J. B. Whicher & Co, composed of J. B. Whicher, A. E. Sheldon, Jonathan Jameson and Samuel Ely, 1844, Newcomb & Chapin, composed of B. B. Newcomb and E. S. Chapin, 1847. Josiah Bemis, Joel Bemis, George Follette, Thomas Drake, Greenleaf quarry, Ezra Beals, Gass quarry, later worked by John Q. Field; Samuel Martin, Thomas Hollis and Flanders, Rattlesnake quarry, later operated by O. T. Rogers & Co.; Moses Nightingale, Bass quarry, afterwards property of Frederick & Field, William Kidder also worked the Bass quarry; John L. Dutton, Gass quarry, Ezra Badger, near Mount Ararat, later worked by Churchill & Co; Quincy Wild, Jonathan Williams, P. McDonald, Chester and Charles Mitchell, Dell & Bigamess, Badger Bros and F. J. Fuller Previous to 1872 several quarries were operated in West Common, notably the Bunker Hill quarry, but many were abandoned before that year, and later quite a number of quarries were opened by various firms and continued a few years, when they, too, were abandoned. The exceptions being the Merry- mount Granite Company on North Common, Elcock & Sons on West Common, Bishop Brothers' Quarry Company, and the Blue Hill Quarry Company. Within a few years after 1872 the Quincy- Wild quarry passed to Field & Wild, who ran it until 1900, when they sold to the Quincy Blue Granite Quarry Company Jonathan William's quarry soon passed into the hands of McKenzie & Patter- son, who operated it until they sold out to the corporation known as the Quincy Quarry Company, who bought several quarries with the intention of operating them under one management. A few years later they sold that property to A. Falconer & Co. Frederick & Field did business until 1890, when the quarry was closed, but later it passed into the hands of the Quincy Quarry Company, who later sold it to John Fallon P. McDonald's quarry was abandoned years ago. Henry Barker & Sons operated their quarry for years, but at the death of several of the firm it passed to Fagan & Ballow, and later to John C. Ballow, Mr. Fagan retiring. The Chester & Charles Mitchell firm was changed to Mitchell & Churchill, and after a few years Mr. Mitchell retired, and Mr. Hitchcock entered the firm, the firm name becoming Churchill & Hitchcock. Later the quarry was bought by the Quincy Quarry Company, and it was joined to the Dell quarry, both being operated as one. Badger Brothers still operate their quarry under the same name Elcock & Sons' quarry is now operated by J. S. Swingle, who also operates the Berry Brothers' quarry O. T. Rogers' quarry was sold to the Quincy Quarry Company, who now operate it. The Blue Hill Quarry Company was sold to the same firm and operated by them for a time, when they sold it to Falconer & Pierce and it is run by them under the old name. Other firms are James Marks, 1831; John O'Neal, 1876, Kennedy & Mahan, 1878, S. Dell, 1875, Lee E. Faxon, 1862; E. De. Gruny, 1879, C. Dunn, 1879, E. Baker, 1879, Lewis Dell, 1857; Hecter Murray, 1840; H. Farnum, 1878, William Moore, 1874, James Garrity, 1868, Wendell & Co, 1820, William Trantor, 1850; Charles Johnson, 1845, E. Roberts & Co, 1838, James Berry, 1850, Walter Berry, 1827, Charles Wilson, 1852. The only firm still cutting granite that was in the business in 1872 are McGrath Brothers, John Thompson & Sons, and Granite Railway Company Badger Brothers are still in the polishing busi- ness.

The following industrial statistics of Quincy are given in Dr. Pattee's History. 1837-Granite quarried 64,590 tons, value $248, 737, hands employed, 533 1845-The number of tons of stone is not given, but the value of the manufactured stone was $324,500, and the number of employees 526. Ten years later the cash value of the stone had decreased to $238,000, but the number of employees were but two less. In 1865, the ten quarries manufactured $271,880 worth of stone on an invested capital of $133,600. That year 306 hands were engaged. There is also mentioned that there was one establishment engaged in the manufacture of marble and grave stones, who, with a capital of $200, and five employees manufactured $4,500 worth of these articles, using $1,500 worth of stone. For the year 1875 is recorded the fact that there were twelve stone cutting establishments, having an aggregate capital of $50,000, and an output valued at $156,600. These figures show that the business has fallen off since 1845. There was one shed in Randolph that produced $20,000 worth of dressed granite on a capital of $8,000. Minot's Ledge Lighthouse, Boston Harbor, marks the place that tells of man's defeat in the battle with nature in her strong holds, but it also tells of labor bravely performed under difficulties in the solution of one of the most knotty problems ever presented to the lighthouse service, and a victory for man through the cour age, perseverance and ingenuity of Lieutenant-Colonel B. S. Alex ander (brevet brigadier-general, U. S. A.), its constructor. The tower is the granite record of an engineering feat of which the whole world cannot show the superior, and which stands peer less and alone in the new world.

The problem presented by this light was such that a beginning could only be made by a triple combination of favorable circum stances-a perfectly smooth sea, a dead calm, and low spring tides. Nothing but a small sailboat could be used with perfect safety, and when the huge two-ton stones were to be placed in position the boat carrying them to the rock could be brought up but in one place, and in a small sea it would pound on the ledge at the side, though the boat itself was in thirty fathoms of water. Immediately after the formation of the present Lighthouse Board in 1852 it was determined to replace the former light on this ledge that was destroyed by a gale in 1851, by a stone tower. So a careful survey of the rock was made by Major Ogden of the Corps of Engineers, acting under orders of the Board. The survey showed that the top of the highest point of the rock was 3 feet 6 inches above the plane of low water, it also showed that it would not be possible to obtain a tower of a greater diameter than 22 feet without going outside the line of low water. This diameter was not considered sufficient either for stability or accommodation. But it was also shown that by going outside of and below the low water line in five places it might be possible to obtain a tower foundation of 30 feet in diameter. But try as he could not another inch could be added. In some places, especially these four shown in the cut of the foundation plan, where the circumference is flush with the outer edge of the rock, the ledge went down almost perpen- dicularly to a distance of from 10 to 40 feet.

The survey was placed in the hands of General Totten, then chief engineer of the U. S. Army, and a member of the Lighthouse Board, who took upon himself the duty of plan- ning a masonry tower for the position. In April, 1855, Lieu- tenant. Alexander was assigned to the duty of construction. He first visited the vicinity of the ledge on May 1, 1855. The weather was fine, and he hoped to be able to land on the rock the next day, but on the following morning he found an old swell running which prevented any boat from approaching the rock. This swell continued until May 12, when he landed on the ledge for the first time.

His first problem was to cut down the rock into a shape suitable to receive the foundation stone of the tower. He could not land even in the summer seas for weeks together at times, and when landed a part of the ledge was at all times under water and the remainder only bare for one or two hours at low water of spring tides. The space was contracted and the sea broke with such force that no cofferdam was possible.

He asked himself how he was to begin, what should be the pro cess, where were the workmen to live, and what were they to do while waiting an opportunity to land on the ledge.

He could forsee that cutting the rock into shape to receive the foundation stones would prove to be a very tedious, troublesome and expensive oper ation and one requiring inces sant vigilance. He knew that when he was unable to land he must do so with a large party of skilled workmen with all the necessary tools and implements. He determined, therefore, to combine the operation of cut- ting down the rock for the foundation with the cutting of the granite for the tower, and have both done by the same party of workmen to whom constant employment and full wages could be given.

To accomplish this it was necessary to have a shore establish ment as near the lighthouse site as possible, with wharf accommoda tions, storerooms, workshops, with a yard where the stone could be cut and fitted together preparatory to being moved to the ledge. By providing the necessary vessels and boats a gang of stone cutters could then work on the ledge when sea, weather and tide would permit, and when they could not there would be full employment on shore for cutting the stone for the tower.

It was determined to erect a permanent scaffold on the ledge, not a beacon house, but a structure of iron, to which the workmen could be secured, to protect them from being washed from the rock, and to afford means of temporary security in case of accident to the boats or vessels. It was also to answer the purposes of a derrick for laying the lower courses of masonry in the tower, the lighthouse being built around the piles of this scaffold they would be so many huge bolts to secure it to the foundation of the rock. On June 20, 1855, the men began to loosen the wedges around the stumps of the old iron piles, and remove the mossels from the top of the ledge. The real beginning was made at daylight, Sunday morning, July 1, 1855. The morning was beautiful, clear and calm, and just as the sun was rising above the horizon, Lieutenant Alex ander took a hammer and chisel, called the party together and after a few remarks struck the first blow in a long battle between man and the forces of nature.

He began by cutting for a trench level on the highest point of the rock. This trench level was the point from which all levels were to be taken while cutting down the foundation. As the whole of the top of the rock down to a plain 1 foot 9 inches below this trench level was to be removed, they began on that day and con tinued for several days to mark points of intersection of this plane with the surface of the rock, cutting thereby a level space around the rock upon which the workmen could stand, and upon which tools could be placed with comparative safety.

In 1855 there were 130 hours' work done upon the rock. April 1, 1856, saw the opening of the second season's work. One of the greatest difficulties in preparing the foundation was in cutting the vertical surfaces of the rock so as to receive the vertical points of the foundation stones. The level surfaces could be more easily prepared, because the rock would be plugged off and the service be brought to a plane even where there was a depth of two or three feet of water over the space of the cut. There were to be two partial courses of stone in the foundation before the first full course of masonry. The form of every stone in this foundation had been worked out by General Totten, but owing to blind seams in the rock and to an accident, the number and sizes of the stones had to be altered. As finally finished there are seven stones in the lowest of partial course, all having the level of their bottom beds below the water, these levels of bottom beds varying in depth from seven inches to two feet two inches below low-water level, the last depth being the level of the bottom bed of the lowest stone in the structure. There are twenty-nine stones in the second partial course, of these twelve have their beds below water.

The following is an outline of the manner of cutting the nauti cal surfaces around the outside of the tower and along the inside lines to which the rock was shaped to receive the stones of the lowest course fitted into it. The men were provided with inch and a quarter drills from two to four feet long, and having marked the ends of a line upon which a vertical surface was to be cut, they would start at low water, as many holes as possible, about one inch apart, carrying these holes down, at first to a depth of only one or two inches. During a good tide three men, one to hold the drill, and two to strike would start from twenty to thirty holes. When a line was thus marked these holes became guides into which longer drills of the same size could be inserted without danger of making mistakes, even when there was two or three feet of water on the rock. These holes were then drilled down to the exact depth were to be taken while cutting down the foundation. As the whole of the top of the rock down to a plain 1 foot 9 inches below this trench level was to be removed, they began on that day and con tinued for several days to mark points of intersection of this plane with the surface of the rock, cutting thereby a level space around the rock upon which the workmen could stand, and upon which tools could be placed with comparative safety.

In 1855 there were 130 hours' work done upon the rock. April 1, 1856, saw the opening of the second season's work. One of the greatest difficulties in preparing the foundation was in cutting the vertical surfaces of the rock so as to receive the vertical points of the foundation stones. The level surfaces could be more easily prepared, because the rock would be plugged off and the service be brought to a plane even where there was a depth of two or three feet of water over the space of the cut. There were to be two partial courses of stone in the foundation before the first full course of masonry. The form of every stone in this foundation had been worked out by General Totten, but owing to blind seams in the rock and to an accident, the number and sizes of the stones had to be altered. As finally finished there are seven stones in the lowest of partial course, all having the level of their bottom beds below the water, these levels of bottom beds varying in depth from seven inches to two feet two inches below low-water level, the last depth being the level of the bottom bed of the lowest stone in the structure. There are twenty-nine stones in the second partial course, of these twelve have their beds below water.

The following is an outline of the manner of cutting the nauti cal surfaces around the outside of the tower and along the inside lines to which the rock was shaped to receive the stones of the lowest course fitted into it. The men were provided with inch and a quarter drills from two to four feet long, and having marked the ends of a line upon which a vertical surface was to be cut, they would start at low water, as many holes as possible, about one inch apart, carrying these holes down, at first to a depth of only one or two inches. During a good tide three men, one to hold the drill, and two to strike would start from twenty to thirty holes. When a line was thus marked these holes became guides into which longer drills of the same size could be inserted without danger of making mistakes, even when there was two or three feet of water on the rock. These holes were then drilled down to the exact depth required. The space between these holes was then "set out," that is to say, the stone between the holes was crushed out by a set like that used by stone cutters in "setting out" Lewis holes. This set was a piece of octagonal steel, like an ordinary drill, but made so as to be about seven-eighths of an inch by one and one-half inches on the bottom, so as to cover the space between two adjacent holes. Having placed this tool in its proper place, it being too large to enter the holes made by the drills it was driven to the bottom of the holes with the ordinary striking hammer.

These holes and this setting out process having been carried to the required depth all the way around any particular portion of the ledge to be removed, disconnected that portion from the rocks to which it had been joined. It was then easily removed without danger of injuring the adjacent posts. This drilling and setting out process was carried along all the interior lines of vertical cutting as well as around the outside of circumference of the foun- dation pit, the centre of the holes in the latter case being placed as nearly as possible on the circumference of the base of the tower, or 15 feet from its centre. So when the circle was set out and trimmed up the foundation pit was about one-half an inch larger all around than the first complete course of stone in the tower, or, in other words, the radius of the foundation pit was 15 feet and half an inch.

A permanent cofferdam was out of the question, but the lieutenant formed temporary cofferdams around small portions of the rock with sandbags like those used in building a sandbag battery. The duck was heavy and, therefore, practically water tight, and being about half full of sand was easily handled. Two or three hundred of these bags built up at low water around a small portion of the foundation pit which it was desired to finish, or where it was wanted to lay a stone in mortar would keep out the water for fully half an hour if the sea was very smooth. During the month of June, 1856, an iron scaffold was erected on the rock. It consisted of nine iron shafts inserted into the holes of the old iron lighthouse and rising to a height of 20 feet above low water. The whole was bound together at the top by a strong wrought iron frame. The posts were 60 inches in diameter at the rock and 7 inches in diameter at the frame. This scaf fold gave the workmen some command of the rock, and it gave great confidence to the new hands. By stretching lines between the posts across the rock in different directions about two or three feet above it, every workman had something within his reach to take hold of when a wave broke over the rock, thus doing away with the constant apprehension of danger.

In 1856, 157 hours' work was done. On the 19th of January, 1857, the bark, "New Empire," was thrown against the scaffold during a gale and swept it from the rock, breaking off the iron posts so as to shatter the top of the rock in places, so that a portion of the work had to be done over again. The year 1857 was very unfavorable for work, only 130 hours being done. But the foundation pit was nearly completed, and four courses of the foundation were laid.

The season of 1858 was much more favorable. The founda- tion pit was finished and the masonry of the tower carried up to the sixth course, inclusive. The lowest stone was laid July 11, 1858. This stone and six others had to be laid in the water. The method adopted for securing a bed of mortar under these stones and also in their vertical joints was as follows. A large piece of thin muslin was spread on a platform on the ledge. A layer of mortar was then spread over it of the required thickness. The stone was then laid on this bed of mortar. The vertical joints of the stone were then plastered with mortar. The cloth was folded up and laid smooth along these vertical joints, having its superflu ous parts cut away. After remaining five or ten minutes the mortor adhere to the stone. The stone was laid in this envelope, which protected the mortar from the dissolving action of the water while it was being lowered into position. The mortar oozed through the cloth, so as to form a good bind to the stone below.

This year 208 hours' work was done, and in 1859, the masonry of the tower was carried to the top of the 32d course, 62 feet above low water, working time 377 hours. It was completed on June 29, 1860, and the light exhibited for the first time November 15, 1860.

The masonry is so locked and dovetailed together that the impact of each wave only makes it so much the stronger, and no stone could be shaken from the outside without first pushing the two sides further out, and that would only hold the rest all the firmer.

Those little angles and corners in the course are three inches in length, and each course is two feet thick. Each stone weighs two tons on the average, and besides being locked to its neighbors, it is bolted in two places to its upper and lower fellows by a pair of two-inch galvanized wrought iron bolts, and the foundation stones were secured to the ledge by similar bolts which entered the ledge to the depth of a foot. In addition, eight 10-inch wrought iron piles were inserted in holes in the ledge to the depth of four feet, and they ran up into the solid portion of the structure some 20 feet.

No time was lost in building the light house nor was anyone seriously injured.